Conversion Chart from Real Food for Real People
White flour is the
All-purpose flour is
Bread flour is white
Cake flour is
Pastry flour has
Semolina is the
Durum flour is finely
Whole wheat, stone-ground and graham flour
Gluten flour is
â€¢ Any recipe calling for all-purpose flour may use
â€¢ Self rising flour can be made by substituting 1 cup of all
â€¢ If wanting the product to be 100% whole wheat, substitute 1-cup
â€¢ To create a lighter whole-wheat loaf, add 1-tablespoon gluten flour
Evaporated milk & Condensed
Recipes calling for buttermilk or cultured milk can
Nibs, Raw Cacao, Roasted Cacao, Ground Cacao)
This is the cacao bean, minus the shell. You can buy cacao raw or
roasted. Whole cacao is the whole bean, cacao nibs are crunched up
pieces of bean, and ground cacao is powdered. The healthiest form of
chocolate there is, cacao can sometimes be quite bitter.
The basis of all types of chocolate, formed by grinding cacao beans into
a smooth, liquid paste. Nothing is added, and it does not contain
alcohol, despite the name. It naturally contains about 53% cocoa butter
(Chocolate, Baking Chocolate, Pure Chocolate, Bitter Chocolate)
Chocolate liquor that has been allowed to cool and harden. It is used
for baking and to make other types of chocolate. Many bakers prefer this
type of chocolate for baking because they have more control over the
flavor and sweetness.
(Semisweet Chocolate, Dark
US dark chocolate and UK plain chocolate are the same, the darkest,
sweetest of eating chocolates. This chocolate is also referred to as
‘bittersweet’, ‘semi-sweet’ or ‘sweet dark’.
This contains at least 35% chocolate liquor, plus cocoa butter
and sugar in varying amounts. There is no technical difference between
bittersweet and semisweet types of chocolate, and they are often
referred to as â€œdark.â€ Note that there is such a thing as â€œbittersweet
(or semisweet) baking chocolate,â€ which is sweetened cocoa liquor
without the added cocoa butter.
‘Bitter’ chocolate is a term used in the UK for high quality plain
chocolate. This contains at least 15%
chocolate liquor, plus cocoa butter and sugar in varying amounts. Some
people mistakenly refer to this as â€œbittersweet.â€
US milk chocolate and UK milk, or plain chocolate are also the same.
When following a recipe, please remember that chocolate chips contain an
ingredient which slows the melting process, and bar chocolates do not
contain this same ingredient. This contains
at least 10% chocolate liquor, plus cocoa butter and sugar in varying
amounts, and at least 12% milk (milk, cream, milk powder, etc).
White chocolate is not technically one of the types of chocolate because
it does not contain any chocolate liquor. It must contain at least 20%
cocoa butter and 14% milk, plus sugar in varying amounts.
(Cocoa Powder, Unsweetened
Cocoa Powder, Unsweetened Cocoa)
This is made by slamming chocolate liquor with a hydraulic press to
expel the fat, i.e. the cocoa butter; what is left is allowed to harden,
and then it is crushed into a powder. There is roughly 10-20% fat
remaining in the powder. Cocoa powder is often used in low fat cooking
because it retains the chocolate flavor but has much of the fat removed.
â€œDutchedâ€ cocoa is formed by washing cocoa powder with an alkali
solution of potassium carbonate. This darkens the color and neutralizes
the acidity of the powder. Very alkalized cocoa is called black cocoa,
which gives Oreos their unique look.
Most American recipes use plain cocoa powder (Hersheyâ€™s is plain cocoa).
If a recipe needs Dutch cocoa, it will usually specify it. In general,
regular cocoa is used in recipes with baking soda (which is alkaline),
and Dutch cocoa is used in recipes with baking powder (which is acidic).
Not to be confused with cocoa powder, this is regular eating chocolate
thatâ€™s been ground to make a powder. It is generally used for making
drinks, and should not be used in place of unsweetened cocoa powder in
Although the FDA sets the guidelines for what types of chocolate can be
labeled â€œunsweetened, bittersweet, semisweet, milk, and white,â€ they
donâ€™t specify what can be labeled baking chocolate.
You can find all of the following types of chocolate labeled â€œbaking
1) unsweetened chocolate
2) bittersweet baking chocolate (chocolate liquor + sugar, but no cocoa
3) bittersweet chocolate (chocolate liquor + sugar + cocoa butter) Most
chefs wouldnâ€™t consider this true baking chocolate because of the added
cocoa butter, though you might find it labeled as such.
4) baking-resistant chocolate, i.e. chocolate chips (bittersweet
chocolate with less cocoa butter added, so that it wonâ€™t melt easily)
Recipes will usually specify at least â€œunsweetened baking chocolate (#1
above)â€ or â€œbittersweet baking chocolate (#2 above).â€ One thing you
should avoid, though, is using chocolate chips in place of other types
of chocolate when the recipe calls for melting. The low cocoa butter
content makes chips bad for melting.
In recipes calling for unsweetened
baking chocolate, you may substitute 3 Tbsp. of unsweetened cocoa powder + 1 Tbsp. of
vegetable or olive oil, for each 1 ounce square.
(Compound Chocolate Coating, Summer Coating, Chocolate Flavored Coating)
These are vegetable fat-based coatings that contain sugar and some
amount cocoa powder, chocolate liquor and/or cocoa butter for flavor.
They are not true chocolate. The advantage to using them is that they
typically do not â€œbloomâ€ in high heat. They are best used in making
Chocolate coating or coating chocolate? Couverture is the good stuff â€“
usually some type of dark chocolate with extra cocoa butter added to
make it melt nicely for enrobing (drizzling onto the outside of a
chocolate confection). Because the high cocoa butter content (roughly
35-45%) makes it melt well, it is ideal for chocolate fountains, and
usually no oil need be added.
(Gianduia, pronounced zhahn-DOO-yuh)
Chocolate made with toasted hazelnuts ground into powder. This has a
smooth, chocolaty texture, but also has the wonderful flavor of
hazelnuts. An Italian or Swiss invention, depending on whom you believe.
Single Bean Chocolate
(Origin Chocolate, Single Origin, Estate Chocolate, Grand Cru, Single
In general, these are types of chocolate that are made from a single
type of bean thatâ€™s grown in a specific region, or even a specific
plantation. But not always. These can also be from different types of
beans all grown on the same plantation, a single bean from several
different plantations in the same geographic region, or a blend of the
finest of the same exact type of bean from locations around the globe.
The point is, the manufacturer is carefully selecting the beans to
create a unique flavor, but some people argue this is a gimmick. After
all, Hersheyâ€™s selects its beans to create a unique flavor too. In
general, however, these types of chocolate are of high quality.
When chocolate liquor is pressed to expel the fat and make cocoa powder,
the fat expelled is cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is added to chocolate
liquor to make the type of chocolate we enjoy eating; it gives chocolate
that smooth, melt-in-your-mouth texture.
Cocoa butter is also used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Because it
melts at about 97Â° F, it smoothes into the skin nicely. Also, it has
healing properties and is resistant to spoilage.
Truffles, Creams, Pralines, etc.)
When people speak of â€œchocolatesâ€ in the plural, they are typically
referring to chocolate candies, like truffles, chocolate creams,
chocolate-covered nuts, and that sort of thing. â€œChocolatesâ€ are candies
made from other types of chocolate.
Chocolate extract is a good way to add chocolate flavor to your cooking
without adding fat, but the flavor can be a bit strong. It is made like
vanilla extract; cacao beans are soaked in alcohol.
There is actually no such thing as a chocolate oil. If you see chocolate
oil, itâ€™s most likely a chocolate perfume oil, entirely manmade, and not